Technology and Materials of Quantum Electronics

Mentor:Oleg Rabinovich
Revision:15 Dec 2013

Course Summary

The goal of this course is studying basic semiconductor and nanotechnology methods, which are the most suitable for designs and production of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and other quantum-dimensional devices.

In the first course part changes of electrical, physical and optical properties of bulk materials during their growing as low-dimensional structures (quantum wells, wires and dots) due to effects of dimensional quantization are studied. The main attention is devoted to such materials as C, Si, compounds and solid solutions GexSi1-x, АIIВVI and AIIIBV.

In the second course part principal technologies of quantum-dimensional structures growth and processing are considered: liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD), nanolithography, self-assembling quantum wires and dots.

In the last course part the most impressive examples and results of using low-dimensional inorganic semiconductor structures in micro- and nanoelectronics are considered. Such devices as infrared, visible and ultraviolet radiation emitting diodes and lasers, photodetectors and transistors are selected for this purpose.

Course Format

Hours of lecture Hours of discussion Hours of independent study Hours total
34 17 45 96

Please note that students are expected to study outside of class for three hours for every hour in class.

Course Content

The plan is to work through the following topics:

  1. Electronic systems in Low-dimensional thin films and inorganic semiconductor heterostructure.
    • Basic information about nanodimensional semiconductors
    • Heterostructures and the mostly speeding semiconductor systems
    • The short review of bulk semiconductors physical properties
  2. Dimensional quantization
    • Two dimensional systems (2D)
    • One-dimensional systems (1D) and zero-dimensional systems (quantum wires (QW) and quantum dots)
    • Spectrum and electronic state in different dimension systems
  3. Carrier transfer in low-dimensional systems
    • Single and multiply quantum wells (SQW and MDW), superlattice (SL)
    • Thermionic carriers emission from QW
    • Electron quasi-steady state in QW
    • Single and multiply quantum wire
    • Optical absorption and spontaneous recombination emission in different dimensional systems.
  4. Technology of low-dimentional structures producing
    • Modern technologies of semiconductor thin films and nanostructures producing.
    • Method of molecular beam epitaxy
    • Mismatched heteroepitaxial systems
    • Main methods for binary compounds
    • Main methods for nanoheterostructure diagnostics (types of microscopes)
  5. Principles of the nucleation theory
    • Thermodynamic and molecular-kinetic theory of nucleation.
    • The mechanisms of heteroepitaxial growth:
    • The theory of continuos film forming
    • Kolmogorov model of two-dimentional crystallization.
  6. Quantum dots
    • Theory of self-organized QD
    • Array of vertical-bending QD
    • Nanostructures ion synthesis on the surface and in bulk semiconductors
    • Process of nanostructure self-organizing during ion synthesis
    • Anisotropy sputtering of semiconductors surface during ion beam influence
  7. Nanoprinting lithography
    • Reducing sizes nanostructures by methods of traditional planar technology
    • Sources of extreme ultraviolet
    • Electron, ion and X-ray lithography
    • Masks and resists for different lithography types
    • Notion of nanostructure self-organized litography-induced
  8. Micro- and nanoelectronic devices based on low-dimensional inorganic semiconductors
    • Field transistors with 2D electron gas
    • Heterostructures with electron mobility in channel (HEMT)
    • HETM based on AlGaN/GaN
    • HEMT based on Heterostructures for power microwave devices
  9. Transistors and diodes
    • Bipolar transistor based on arsenides, phosphides and nitrides of III group elements
    • Resonance tunneling
    • Resonance tunnel diode
    • Emitting diode with heterojunctions and active area in 3D shape
    • Light emitting diode with hetero-junctions and active area in 3D shape
    • 2D layer case
    • Single quantum well case
    • Quantum dots array case
    • Emitting diodes for ultraviolet spectrum based on AlGaInN
  10. Lasers
    • Heterolasers with the active area in 3D shape-laser
    • Lasers with lateral and vertically emission
    • Heterolasers with QD
  11. Photodetectors
    • Photodiodes and phototransistors for fiber optic
    • Communication services
    • Photodetectors and solar sells based on compounds and solid solutions AIIIBV
    • Quantum dimensional Stark-effect and its application in optical QW-modulator
    • QW-modulators advantages over modulators with 3D regions

Textbooks

Primary textbooks:

  1. Yoseph Imry. Introduction to Mesoscopic Physics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2 edition edition, December 2008.
  2. Peter Y. Yu and Manuel Cardona. Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties. Springer, Berlin ; New York, 3rd edition edition, March 2004.

Additional textbooks:

  1. Marian A Herman. Semiconductor superlattices. Akademie-Verlag, 1986.
  2. H. C. Casey and M. B. Panish. Heterostructure Lasers: Fundamental Principles Pt. A. Academic Press Inc, New York, August 1978.
  3. J. M. Martinez-Duart, R. J. Martin-Palma, and Fernando Agullo-Rueda. Nanotechnology for Microelectronics and Optoelectronics. Elsevier Limited, Amsterdam ; Boston, June 2006.
  4. E. Fred Schubert. Light-Emitting Diodes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ; New York, 2 edition edition, June 2006.

Homework Assignments

Weekly, 12 problem sets in total, due at the beginning of the lecture. You may also submit via e-mail before the due date/time. It is of outmost importance that you invest your own effort into solving problems. Should you consult any sources, please provide references. Homework assignments should be typed. Legible handwritten assignments are acceptable.

Grading

Class participation 10%
Homework assignments 20%
Midterm exam 20%
Final exam 50%